Virginia Titer Testing

Some Virginia employers require antibody testing, also known as titer testing, as part of their pre-employment screening process. Existing employees may also be tested periodically as part of the process to ensure safety in the workplace, especially for industries such as healthcare or education. Titer testing is the first step to determining if someone is immune to certain diseases, such as varicella (Chickenpox), hepatitis A, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, measles, mumps, rubella, or COVID-19. If the antibody test indicates that an individual is not immune, Health Street can also provide services for vaccines and immunizations.

To register online for a titer test in Virginia, simply click the “Register Now” button below. To schedule via phone or to contact us with questions regarding your antibody testing services, please reach us at (888) 378-2499.

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Frequently Asked Questions

Does Virginia require you to test?

The state of Virginia does not require vaccinations for any adults except college students. There are also currently no laws in place requiring the submission of a Virginia titer test for any reason.

Why are antibody tests (titer tests) important?

A positive antibody test proves immunity to a specific disease. In situations where certain vaccinations are required, the ability to take an antibody (titer) test allows individuals to avoid unnecessary vaccinations.

What is an antibody titer score?

To produce an antibody titer score, a person’s serum is diluted and then retested for antibodies. If antibodies can still be detected, then the serum is diluted and then tested again. This process is repeated until the person’s serum has been diluted as much as possible, but the presence of antibodies can still be detected.

What do titer tests test for?

A titer test is a blood test that is used to detect the presence of antibodies in the blood. The purpose of a titer test is to determine if a person has immunity against certain diseases. These results can be used to provide employers with proof of immunity, or to determine if a person needs to receive a certain vaccine.

What does a positive titer test mean?

If titer test results show that a person is positive, this may indicate that the individual has previously been infected with the disease or vaccinated against it. The individual may be presumed to have immunity against that specific disease, and vaccination may not be required at this time.

Virginia Antibody Testing Regulation

With the exception of college students, the state of Virginia does not require vaccinations for adults, regardless of the industry in which they are employed. There are also no Virginia titer test regulations requiring antibody (titer) testing. However, the Virginia Vaccines for Adults (VVFA) program, which is managed by the Virginia Department of Health (VDH) Division of Immunization (DOI), offers no-cost vaccines for adults who are uninsured or underinsured. The vaccines provided are based on the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) adult schedule. Adults who receive a Virginia titer test and find that they are not immune to certain diseases may wish to take advantage of this program.

Virginia law requires all college students without a legal exemption who are enrolled in a baccalaureate public institution of higher education to submit proof of vaccination against diphtheria, tetanus, poliomyelitis, measles (rubeola), German measles (rubella), and mumps. In addition, full-time students must be vaccinated against meningococcal disease and hepatitis B.

Many institutions will accept a Virginia titer test indicating immunity to measles, mumps, rubella, hepatitis B, or varicella in lieu of vaccination records. Students can also opt-out due to medical or religious exemptions or after reviewing medical information on the risks of the disease.

In January of 2022, Virginia Governor Glenn Youngkin signed an executive order removing COVID-19 vaccine mandates for state employees. Following this order, several Virginia colleges and universities lifted their mandates for staff members. The state’s new attorney general also issued an advisory stating that Virginia’s public universities may not require a COVID-19 vaccination as a condition for enrollment or attendance.

While the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) has stated that it is legal for employers to mandate COVID-19 vaccinations, it has also stated that requiring COVID-19 antibody tests is a violation of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). As a result, there are no federal or Virginia antibody test regulations requiring COVID-19 antibody testing.

Virginia Antibody Industry Regulations

The state of Virginia does not mandate vaccinations for healthcare employees. There are also no Virginia antibody test regulations requiring healthcare workers to confirm immunity to any disease using a titer test. However, all hospitals within the state are required to have an infection control committee. This committee must conduct hospital-wide infection surveillance and develop, periodically evaluate, and revise infection control policies as needed. This includes, but is not limited to, employee health screening and immunizations.

Relevant Virginia Laws, Acts, and Legislation

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§ 23.1-800 – requires all students attending a baccalaureate public institution of higher education in the state to have required vaccinations unless they have a legal exemption.
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12VAC5-410-490 – all Virginia hospitals must have an infection control committee that evaluates infection control policies for all operations. This includes employee health screenings and immunizations.

Citations

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"50-State Chart on Vaccines, Exemptions, and Related State Issues." Fisher Phillips, https://www.fisherphillips.com/assets/htmldocuments/Vaccines%20Subcommittee%20-%2050%20State%20Vaccine%20Vaccination%20and%20Immunization.xlsx
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Mirshani, Dean. "Gov. Youngkin signs executive actions banning critical race theory, appointing new parole board, ending school mask mandate and vaccine mandate for state employees." WRIC, 15 January 2022, https://www.wric.com/news/politics/capitol-connection/gov-youngkin-to-sign-executive-actions-banning-critical-race-theory-ending-school-mask-mandate-and-rescinding-vaccine-mandate-for-state-employees/
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Dantzler, Nicole. "Virginia colleges reverse vaccine mandate for staff, following governor's order." WRIC, 19 January 2022, https://www.wric.com/news/local-news/virginia-colleges-reverse-vaccine-mandate-for-staff-following-governors-order/
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Redden, Elizabeth. "Changed Political Winds in Virginia Shift Vaccine Policy." Inside Higher Ed, 31 January 2022, https://www.insidehighered.com/news/2022/01/31/virginia-ag-says-colleges-cant-mandate-covid-vaccines#:~:text=Virginia's%20Republican%20attorney%20general%20issued,condition%20for%20enrollment%20or%20attendance.
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"Virginia Wesleyan University Immunization Record." Virginia Wesleyan University, https://www.vwu.edu/campus-life/student-health-center/pdfs/Immunization_Record.pdf
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"State Vaccine Requirements for College Entry." National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL), 1 September 2021, https://www.ncsl.org/research/health/state-vaccine-requirements-for-college-entry.aspx
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"What You Should Know About COVID-19 and the ADA, the Rehabilitation Act, and Other EEO Laws." U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC), 14 December 2021, https://www.eeoc.gov/wysk/what-you-should-know-about-covid-19-and-ada-rehabilitation-act-and-other-eeo-laws
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"§ 23.1-800. Health histories and immunizations required; exemptions." Code of Virginia, Virginia General Assembly, https://law.lis.virginia.gov/vacode/23.1-800/
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"12VAC5-410-490. Infection control." Administrative Code, Virginia General Assembly, https://law.lis.virginia.gov/admincode/title12/agency5/chapter410/section490/
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"Virginia Vaccines for Adults." Virginia Department of Health, https://www.vdh.virginia.gov/immunization/vvfa/
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"ACIP Recommendations." Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/acip/recommendations.html
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"State Immunization Laws for Healthcare Workers and Patients." Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), https://www2.cdc.gov/vaccines/statevaccsApp/Administration.asp?statetmp=VA